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Again in this case, the situation is different for swimming, creeping or quadrupedal (prone) animals than for Man, or other erect species, due to the changed position of the axis.
A mid-sagittal plane divides the body and brain into left and right halves; sagittal sections in general are parallel to this median plane, moving along the medial-lateral dimension(see the image above).
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In vertebrates, the nervous system is segregated into the internal structure of the brain and spinal cord (together called the central nervous system, or CNS) and the routes of the nerves that connect to the rest of the body (known as the peripheral nervous system, or PNS).
The delineation of distinct structures and regions of the nervous system has been critical in investigating how it works.
Neuroanatomy is the study of the anatomy and stereotyped organization of nervous systems.
In contrast to animals with radial symmetry, whose nervous system consists of a distributed network of cells, animals with bilateral symmetry have segregated, defined nervous systems, and thus we can make much more precise statements about their neuroanatomy.
The next major development in neuroanatomy came from the Greek Alcmaeon, who determined that the brain and not the heart ruled the body and that the senses were dependent on the brain.After Alcmaeon’s findings, many scientists, philosophers, and physicians from around the world continued to contribute to the understanding of neuroanatomy, notably: Galen, Herophilus, Rhazes and Erasistratus.Herophilus and Erasistratus of Alexandria were perhaps the most influential Greek neuroscientists with their studies involving dissecting the brains.For several hundred years afterward, with the cultural taboo of dissection, no major progress occurred in neuroscience.However, Pope Sixtus IV effectively revitalized the study of neuroanatomy by altering the papal policy and allowing human dissection.
This resulted in a boom of research in neuroanatomy by artists and scientists of the Renaissance Note that such descriptors (dorsal/ventral, rostral/caudal; medial/lateral) are relative rather than absolute (e.g., a lateral structure may be said to lie medial to something else that lies even more laterally).